READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 18-33, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Section 1 (Questions 18 - 24)
Anti-fatigue mats are designed to lessen tiredness caused by standing for long periods on hard surfaces. When considering their use, there are several factors that should be considered at the same time. [Crack IELTS with Rob] Work should be organized so that the worker has some choice about his/her working position and an opportunity to change position frequently. Q18A workplace that includes a footstool increases the variety of body positions and encourages frequent changes between them.
Footwear is a factor which may further reduce the harmful effects of prolonged standing. Q19Shoes should provide cushioning for both the arch and heel while providing comfort to the wearer.
The type of flooring used in the workplace has an equally important influence on comfort, especially on tender feet. Hard, unyielding floors, like concrete, are the least comfortable surfaces to work on. Q20Wood or cork – anything that provides some elasticity- is gentler on the feet. More than that, Q21softer floor coverings reduce fatigue and improve safety by reducing slips and falls on slippery floors.
Anti-fatigue mats absorb the shock due to walking and this cushioning effect reduces foot fatigue. However, it is important to understand that for oily or greasy areas some mats are more suitable than others. [Crack IELTS with Rob] Q22Mats with smooth surfaces are suitable for dry areas. Mats with drainage holes are designed primarily for wet areas and mats made with rubber are the best option for areas where grease is present. The use of matting also requires caution because mats can lead to tripping and falling accidents when installed improperly.
Another type of floor covering, namely anti-slip matting, is useful in increasing foot comfort and safety. However, Q23workers may experience a feeling of burning in the feet, because the non-slip properties of anti-slip matting cause their shoes to grab suddenly on the flooring, making their feet slide forward inside the shoes. Friction inside the shoes produces heat which creates soreness. Q24Shock-absorbing insoles can minimize this discomfort.
Section 2 (Questions 25 - 33)
Hearing protectors are design to reduce exposure to loud noise and there are three main types available. Ear plugs are inserted to block the ear canal and are sold as disposable products or reusable plugs. Q28Custom moulded ear plugs are also available. Ear muffs consist of soft ear cushions that fit around the ear and hard outer cups. [Crack IELTS with Rob] They are held together by a head band. Canal caps have flexible tips that act as caps which plug the ear canal. They do not Q26extend into the ear canal, only close the ear opening. Therefore they do not offer as much protection as ear plugs or ear muffs.
The choice of hearing protectors depends on a number of factors including the level of noise, comfort and the suitability of the hearing protector for both the worker and his environment. Most importantly, the hearing protector should provide the desired noise reduction. Ear Q27muffs are more desirable for intermittent noise, since the removal and reinsertion of earplugs may be inconvenient. Canal caps are also ideal for situations where hearing protection must be taken on and off frequently. They are not designed for continuous wear.
Ear Q29plugs are lightweight and portable, less expensive than muffs and more comfortable in hot, humid work areas. However, Q30they provide less protection than some muffs, and should not be used in areas where noise levels exceed 105 decibels. [Crack IELTS with Rob] They are not as Q25visible as muffs and a supervisor cannot readily check to see if workers are wearing them. They must be properly inserted to provide adequate protection.
Ear muffs can vary with respect to the material and depth of the dome, and the force of the headband. The deeper and heavier the dome, the greater the low-frequency attenuation provided by the protector. Ear muffs can usually provide greater protection tha plugs, although this is not always true. They are easier to fit, generally more durable than plugs and Q32they have replaceable parts. However, they are more expensive, and often less comfortable than plugs, especially in hot work areas.
The human aspects of hearing protection are particularly important. It is therefore a good idea for the employer to provide a number of different types of hearing protection from which workers can choose, keeping in mind any safety or hygienic reasons for not providing a particular kind of protector. [Crack IELTS with Rob] For example, Q33ear plugs which are used in a plant setting where people reuse them throughout the day, often reinserting them with dirty fingers, can introduce dirt and bacteria into the ears, causing ear infections.
Questions 18 - 24
Complete the notes below based on the information in Section 1 (Questions 18 - 24).
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 18-24 on your answer sheet.
|Points to consider when a person stands all day at work:|
|+ Changes in working/standing position|
|- Use a (18) to rest your legs and move from one position to the another at regular intervals.|
|- Select shoes with adequate support for the (19)|
ARCH AND HEEL
|+ Soft flooring|
|- Select materials such as timber and (20)|
|- Can decrease the risk of tiredness and accidents such as (21)|
SLIPS AND FALLS
|+ Anti-fatigue mats|
|- Use (22) material on oily surfaces|
|+ Anti-slip mats|
|- may cause a (23) sensation in the feet|
|- The wearing of (24) may improve comfort|
Questions 25 - 28
Read the extract from a leaflet about hearing protectors (Section 2 (Questions 18-33)).
Look at the following statements and the list of items below.
Write the correct letter A, B, C or D, in boxes 25-28 on your answer sheet.
List of items
A canal caps
B ear muffs
C ear plugs
D both canal caps an ear muffs
List of statements
25. They cost more than the other options.B
26. They provide the user with the least amount of protection.A
27. They are suitable for use if exposed to varying noise levels.D
28. They can be specifically make for an individual user.C
Questions 29 - 33
Complete the tables below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from Section 2 (Questions 18 - 33) for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 29-33 on your answer sheet.
Comparison of hearing protectors
|- (29) and easy to carry|
|- suitable for use in a very warm environment|
|- highly (30) so easy to supervise the use of|
|- easy to obtain (31)|
|- may provide inadequate protection at noise levels greater than (32)|
|- require good hygiene practices in order to avoid (33) to the ear|