READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Section 1 (Questions 1 - 7)
Use energy more efficiently and help save the planet by switching to low-energy light bulbs.
Many of us still use traditional bulbs around the house. But simply replacing one traditional 100-watt bulb in your home with a low-energy equivalent will save you the amount of electricity required to make 1200 cups of tea. It will also reduce your annual electricity bill, so as well as using less energy, you’ll be paying less money. [Crack IELTS with Rob] This is because traditional bulbs only use 10% of the electrical energy to produce light, while the remaining 90% is wasted as heat. Low-energy bulbs, which are also known as compact fluorescent lamps, or CFLs, are more efficient because most of the electrical energy is used to generate actual light instead.
CFLs are more expensive to buy, costing an average of 6 pounds each compared to 40p for a traditional equivalent, but they work out cheaper in the long run because they use less electricity and are much more durable, lasting at least six times longer.
However, they do have some drawbacks. For example, they can have a slow start-up, taking some time to reach their full brightness, so you are recommended to use them where they will be left on for longer periods, such as your living room or hallway. [Crack IELTS with Rob] This also avoids frequent switching on and off, which may also shorten the life of the bulb.
CFLs are also noticeably dimmer when used in cold conditions, such as in a garage or outside, as this can reduce the bulb's efficiency, so this is not recommended. Finally, CFLs are also likely to be up to three times heavier than traditional bulbs, which may make them unsuitable for some light fittings, so you should always check these before changing your bulbs.
Section 2 (Questions 8 - 13)
Rights in the workplace
This leaflet explains your legal rights when you are at work, including what your employer must (and must not) do for you.
Do I need a contract?
A written contract of employment is useful to have because it sets out what you can expect from your job and from your employer. [Crack IELTS with Rob] There are laws to protect workers, whether or not they have a written contract.
Every worker has the right to be paid and to enjoy a reasonably safe place of work. You also have certain legal rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against at work because of your sex, race or disability.
What can I do if I don’t have a written contract?
Every employee has a legal right to receive a written statement which sets out your terms of employment. You should get this within eight weeks of starting your job. [Crack IELTS with Rob] The terms include basic things like the name of your employer and where you will be working, the date you started work, how much you will earn and when you will be paid. It will also include terms about your hours of work, your holiday entitlement and any benefits, such as holiday and sickness pay and pensions. It should also state the length of notice you both have to give, as well as any disciplinary rules.
In many cases, employers don’t do all of this. They either give employees a short offer letter or nothing at all. This is partly because an employer can’t be fined for not giving you a proper contract.
If you want a contract, but your employer won’t give you one, all you can do is apply to an employment tribunal for a list of what should be included in your written statement.
Questions 1 - 7
Complete the sentences below with words taken from Section 1 (Questions 1 – 7).
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes, 1-7, on your answer sheet.
1. If you change your type of light bulb you could save both energy and .MONEY
2. Conventional bulbs convert most of the energy they use into .HEAT
3. You do not need to replace CFLs every often because they are very .DURABLE
4. When they are first switched on, CFLs may have a .SLOW START-UP
5. Constantly using the light switch may of a CFL.SHORTEN THE LIFE
6. Low temperatures may reduce the of CFLs.EFFICIENCY
7. CFLs may weigh more than other bulbs, so you must only use them with appropriate .LIGHT FITTINGS
Questions 8 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Section 2 (Questions 8 - 13)?
In boxes, 8-13, on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
8. Employers have to provide written contracts for their employees.FALSE
9. There are laws to ensure that people are treated equally at work.TRUE
10. A written statement has the same value as a contract.NOT GIVEN
11. Employers should give written terms of employment to employees in the first two months of the job.TRUE
12. Employers must contribute towards their employees’ pensions.NOT GIVEN
13. An employment tribunal can force employers to issue contracts.FALSE